Scientific journal papers


  • Bezerra, M.P., Viana, E.A.P., Brandão, L.P.M., McGinnis D.F., Bezerra-Neto J.F., Barbosa F.A.R., 2022. Water quality evaluation and dissolved organic matter characterization of a tropical hypereutrophic reservoir and its streams treated with Phoslock® and microbial bioremediation Enzilimp®. Environ Sci Pollut Res 29, 1375–1390 (2022).
  • Kang L., Mucci M., Lürling M., 2022. Influence of temperature and pH on phosphate removal efficiency of different sorbents used in lake restoration, Science of The Total Environment, Volume 812, 2022, 151489, ISSN 0048-9697,


  • Cui, J., Wang, D., Lin, J., Wang Y., Ren M., Yang Y., Shi P., 2021. New application of lanthanum-modified bentonite (Phoslock®) for immobilization of arsenic in sediments. Environ Sci Pollut Res 28, 2052–2062 (2021).
  • Funes A., Alvarez-Manzaneda I., Arco A., de Vicente J., de Vicente I., 2021. Evaluating the effect of CFH-12® and Phoslock® on phosphorus dynamics during anoxia and resuspension in shallow eutrophic lakes, Environmental Pollution,
  • Han Y., Li Q., He H., Gu J., Wu Z., Huang X., Zou X., Zhang Y., Li K., 2021. Effect of juvenile omni-benthivorous fish (Carassius carassius) disturbance on the efficiency of lanthanum-modified bentonite (LMB) for eutrophication control: a mesocosm study. Environmental Science and Pollution Research
  • Kibuye F.A., Zamyadi A., Wert E.C., 2021. A critical review on operation and performance of source water control strategies for cyanobacterial blooms: Part I-chemical control methods, Harmful Algae, Volume 109, 2021, 102099, ISSN 1568-9883,
  • Kong M., Liu F., Zhang W., Xu X., Chao J., Wang P., Wang C., Gao Y., 2021. High resolution investigation of pH on control of mobile and organic phosphorus and associated release kinetics following lanthanum modified bentonite (LMB) amendment at the water-sediment interface, Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 295, 2021, 126148, ISSN 0959-6526,
  • Su L., Zhong C., Gan L., He X. Yu J., Zhang X., Liu Z., 2021. Effects of Lanthanum Modified Bentonite and Polyaluminium Chloride on the Environmental Variables in the Water and Sediment Phosphorus Form in Lake Yanglan, China. Water 2021, 13, 1947.
  • Tiwari P.K., Singh R.K., Khajanchi S., Kang Y., Misra A.K., 2021. A mathematical model to restore water quality in urban lakes using Phoslock. Discrete & Continuous Dynamical Systems – B, 2021, 26 (6): 3143-3175.
  • van Oosterhout F., Yasseri S., Noyma N., Huszar V., Marinho M.M., Mucci M., Waajen G., Lürling M., 2021. Assessing the long-term efficacy of internal loading management to control eutrophication in Lake Rauwbraken, Inland Waters, 
  • Yin H., Yang C., Yang P., Kaksonen A.H., Douglas G.B., 2021. Contrasting effects and mode of dredging and in situ adsorbent amendment for the control of sediment internal phosphorus loading in eutrophic lakes. Water Research 189 (2021) 116644.
  • Zhang X., Zhen W., Jensen H.S., Reitzel K., Jeppesen E., Liu Z., 2021. The combined effects of macrophytes (Vallisneria denseserrulata) and a lanthanum-modified bentonite on water quality of shallow eutrophic lakes: A mesocosm study, Environmental Pollution, Volume 277, 2021, 116720, ISSN 0269-7491.
  • Zeller M.A., Alperin M.J., The efficacy of Phoslock® in reducing internal phosphate loading varies with bottom water oxygenation, Water Research X, Volume 11, 2021, 100095, ISSN 2589-9147,
  • Zhi et al., 2021: Influence of Natural Organic Matter and pH on Phosphate Removal by and Filterable Lanthanum Release from Lanthanum-Modified Bentonite:


  • Barçante B., Nascimento N.O., Silva T.F.G., Reis L.A., Giani A., 2020.Cyanobacteria dynamics and phytoplankton species richness as a measure of waterbody recovery: Response to phosphorus removal treatment in a tropical eutrophic reservoir. Ecological Indicators Vol. 117, October 2020, 106702.
  • Behets, G.J., Mubiana, K.V., Lamberts, L., Finsterle, K., Traill, N., Blust, R. & D’Haese, P.C. 2020. Use of lanthanum for water treatment: A matter of concern? Chemosphere Volume 239, January 2020. In Press.
  • Cabrerizo, M.J., Álvarez-Manzaneda, M.I., León-Palmero, E., Guerrero-Jiménez, G., de Senerpont Domis, L.N., Teurlincx, S., González-Olalla, J.M., Warming and CO2 effects under oligotrophication on temperate phytoplankton communities, Water Research (2020),
  • Laughinghouse H.D., Lefler F. W., Berthold D. E., Bishop W. M., 2020. Sorption of dissolved microcystin using lanthanum-modified bentonite clay. J. Aquat. Plant Management, 58: 72–75.
  • Li X., Chen J., Zhang Z., Kuang Y., Yang R., Wu D., 2020. Interactions of phosphate and dissolved organic carbon with lanthanum modified bentonite: Implications for the inactivation of phosphorus in lakes, Water Research, Volume 181, 2020, 115941, ISSN 0043-1354,
  • Lürling, M., Mucci, M., Waajen, G., 2020. Removal of Positively Buoyant Planktothrix rubescens in Lake Restoration. Toxins 2020, 12, 700;
  • Lürling M. and Mucci M., 2020. Mitigating eutrophication nuisance: In lake measures are becoming inevitable in eutrophic waters in the Netherlands. Hydrobiologia
  • Lürling M., Kang L., Mucci M., van Oosterhout F., Noyma N.P., Miranda M., Huszar V.L.M., Waajen G., Marinho M.M., 2020. Coagulation and precipitation of cyanobacterial blooms, Ecological Engineering, Volume 158, 2020, 106032, ISSN 0925-8574,
  • Mucci M., Douglas G., Lürling M, 2020. Lanthanum modified bentonite behaviour and efficiency in adsorbing phosphate in saline waters. Chemosphere Vol. 249 (2020) 126131.
  • Song X., Li D., Zhao Z., Zhou J., Xu C., Geng X., Huang Y., 2020. The effect of microenvironment in the sediment on phosphorus immobilization under capping with ACPM and Phoslock®. Environmental Science and Pollution Research.
  • van Oosterhout, F., Waajen, G., Yasseri, S., Marinho, M.M., Noyma, N.P., Mucci, M., Douglas, G. and Lurling, M. 2020. Lanthanum in Water, Sediment, Macrophytes and chironomid larvae following application of Lanthanum modified bentonite to lake Rauwbraken (The Netherlands). Science of the Total Environment. 706.
  • Zhi Y., Zhang C., Hjorth R., Baun A., Duckworth O.W., Call D.F., Knappe D.R.U., Jones J. L., Grieger K.,2020. Emerging lanthanum (III)-containing materials for phosphate removal from water: A review towards future developments. Environment International 145 (2020) 106115.


  • Álvarez-Manzaneda I., Baun A., Cruz-Pizarro L., de Vicente I., 2019. Ecotoxicity screening of novel phosphorus adsorbents used for lake restoration, Chemosphere 222 (2019), pp. 469-478.
  • de Magalhães, L., Noyma, N.P., Furtado, L.L., Drummond E., Leite V.B.G, Mucci M., van Oosterhout F., Vera Lucia de Moraes Huszar V.L.M., Lürling M., Marinho M.M., 2019. Managing Eutrophication in a Tropical Brackish Water Lagoon: Testing Lanthanum-Modified Clay and Coagulant for Internal Load Reduction and Cyanobacteria Bloom Removal. Estuaries and Coasts 42390–402 (2019).
  • Douglas G., Rate A., Lürling M., 2019. Comment on: Svatos, K.B.W. (2018). “Commercial silicate phosphate sequestration and desorption leads to a gradual decline of aquatic systems” by Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 26, 5386–5392
  • D’Haese P.C., Douglas G., Verhulst A, Neven E., Behets G.J., Vervaet B.A., Finsterle K., Lürling M., Spears B., 2019. Human health risk associated with the management of phosphorus in freshwaters using lanthanum and aluminium. Chemosphere 220 (2019), pp. 286-299.
  • Li X., Zhang Z., Xie Q., Yang R., Guan T, Wu D., 2019. Immobilization and Release Behavior of Phosphorus on Phoslock-Inactivated Sediment under Conditions Simulating the Photic Zone in Eutrophic Shallow Lakes. Environmental Science & Technology 2019 53 (21), 12449-12457
  • Lucena-Silva D., Molozzi J., dos Santos Severiano J., Becker V.,de Lucena Barbosa J.E., 2019. Removal efficiency of phosphorus, cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins by the “flock & sink” mitigation technique in semi-arid eutrophic waters. Water Research 159 (2019) 262-273.
  • Sadeghi S., Hua G., Min K., Johnson T.J., Gibbons W., 2019. Synergistic effects of polyaluminum chloride and Phoslock on phosphate and cyanobacteria removal in eutrophic lake water. AWWA Water Science, 2019; e1157.


  • Araújo F., van Oosterhout F., Becker V., Attayde J.L., Lürling M., 2018. Effects of polyaluminum chloride and lanthanum-modified bentonite on the growth rates of three Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii strains. PLoS ONE 13(4): e0195359.
  • Bishop, W.M., Richardson, R.J., 2018. Influence of Phoslock® on legacy phosphorus, nutrient ratios, and algal assemblage composition in hypereutrophic water resources. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 25:4544 – 4557.
  • Ding, S., Sun, Q., Chen, X., Liu, Q., Wang, D., Lin, J., Zhang, C., Tsang, D.C.W., 2018. Synergistic adsorption of phosphorus by iron in lanthanum modified bentonite (Phoslock®): New insight into sediment phosphorus immobilization. Water Research 134 (2018) 32-43.
  • Funes, A., Martínez, F.J., Álvarez-Manzaneda, I., Conde-Porcuna, J.M., de Vicente, J., Guerrero, F., de Vicente, I., 2018. Determining major factors controlling phosphorus removal by promising adsorbents used for lake restoration: A linear mixed model approach, Water Research  (2018)
  • Mucci, M., Maliaka V., Noyma N.P., Marinho M.M., Lürling, M., 2018. Assessment of possible solid-phase phosphate sorbents to mitigate eutrophication: Influence of pH and anoxia. Science of the Total Environment 619–620 (2018), 1431–1440.
  • Yin H., Douglas, G.B., Cai, Y., Liu, C., Copetti D., 2018. Remediation of internal phosphorus loads with modified clays, influence of fluvial suspended particulate matter and response of the benthic macroinvertebrate community. Science of the Total Environment 610–611 (2018), 101–110.


  • Bishop, W.M. & Willis, B.E. 2017. Comparison of water resource management programs: An algae action threshold level approach. Open Journal of Applied Sciences. 7 (2). 31-41.
  • Epe T.S., Finsterle K., Yasseri S., 2017. Nine years of phosphorus management with lanthanum modified bentonite (Phoslock®) in a eutrophic, shallow swimming lake in Germany, Lake and Reservoir Management,
  • Kasprzyk, M. & Gajewska, M. 2017. Preliminary results from application Phoslock to remove phosphorus compounds from wastewater. Journal of Ecological Engineering.  18 (4) 82-89.
  • Kurzbaum, E., Raizner, Y., Cohen, O., Rubinstein, G. & Bar Shalom, O. 2017. Lanthanum-modified bentonite: potential of efficient removal of phosphates from fishpond effluents. Environment Science and Pollution Research International. 24(17):15182-15186.
  • Lürling, M., Waajen G., Engels B., van Oosterhout, F., 2017. Effects of Dredging and Lanthanum-Modified Clay on Water Quality Variables in an Enclosure Study in a hypertrophic Pond. Water 2017, 9,
  • Miranda M., Noyma N., Pacheco F. S., de Magalhães L., Pinto E., Santos S., Maria Fernanda A. Soares M.F.A., Huszar V.L., LürlingM., Marinho M.M., 2017. The efficiency of combined coagulant and ballast to remove harmful cyanobacterial blooms in a tropical shallow system. Harmful Algae 65 (2017) 27–39.
  • Nürnberg G.K., 2017. Attempted management of cyanobacteria by Phoslock (lanthanum-modified clay) in Canadian lakes: water quality results and predictions, Lake and Reservoir Management, DOI: 10.1080/10402381.2016.1265618
  • Reitzel, K., Balslev, K.A., Jensen, H.S. 2017. The influence of lake water alkalinity and humic substances on particle dispersion and lanthanum desorption from a lanthanum modified bentonite. Water Research 125 (2017), 191-200.
  • Waajen, G., Pauwels, M. & Lurling, M. 2017. Effects of combined flocculant – Lanthanum modified bentonite treatment on aquatic macro invertebrate fauna. Water Research. In press.
  • Waajen G., van Oosterhout F., Lürling M., 2017. Bio-Accumulation of Lanthanum from Lanthanum Modified Bentonite  treatments in lake restoration. Environ Pollut 230, 911-918.
  • Wang C., He R., Wu Y., Lürling M., Cai H., Jiang H.L., Liu X., 2017. Bioavailable phosphorus (P) reduction is less than mobile P immobilization in lake sediment for eutrophication control by inactivating agents. Water Research 109, 196-206.
  • Wang, Y., Ding, S., Wang, D., Sun, Q., Lin, J., Shi, L., Chen, M. and Zhang, C. 2017. Static layer: A key to immobilisation of phosphorus in sediments amended with lanthanum modified bentonite (Phoslock®). Chemical Engineering Journal. 325. 49-58.


  • Copetti, D., Finsterle, K., Marziali, L., Stefani, F., Gianni Tartari, G., Douglas, G., Reitzel, K., Spears, B., Winfield, I.J., Crosa, G., D’Haese, P., Yasseri, S. & Lürling, M. 2016. Eutrophication management in surface waters using lanthanum-modified bentonite: a review. Journal of Water Research. 97. 162-174.
  • Dithmer, L., Nielsen, U.G., Lürling, M., Spears, B.M., Yasseri, S., Lundberg, D., Moore, A., Jensen, N.D. & Reitzel, K. 2016. Responses in sediment phosphorus and lanthanum concentrations composition across 10 lakes following applications of lanthanum modified bentonite. Water Research. 97. 101-110.
  • Dithmer, L., Nielsen, U.G., Lundberg, D. & Reitzel, K. 2016. Influence of dissolved organic carbon on the efficiency of P sequestration by a lanthanum modified clay. Water Research. 97. 39-46.
  • Douglas, G.B., Lurling, M & Spears, B.M. 2016. Assessment of changes in potential nutrient limitation in an impounded river after application of lanthanum-modified bentonite. Water Research. 97. 47-54. 10.1016/j.watres.2016.02.005
  • Kurzbaum, E. & Shalom, O.B. 2016. The potential of phosphate removal from dairy wastewater and municipal wastewater effluents using a lanthanum-modified bentonite. Applied Clay Science. 123. 182-186. 10.1016/j.clay.2016.01.038
  • Lang, P., Meis, S., Procházková, L., Carvalho, L.,Mackay, E.B., Woods, H.J., Pottie, J., Milne, I., Taylor, C., Maberly, S.C. & Spears, B.M. 2016. Phytoplankton community responses in a shallow lake following lanthanum-bentonite application. Water Research. 55-68.
  • Lin J.,Zhong Y., Fan H., Song C., Yu C., Gao Y., Xiong X., Wu C., Liu J., 2016. Chemical treatment of contaminated sediment for phosphorus control and subsequent effects on ammonia-oxidizing and ammonia-denitrifying microorganisms and on submerged macrophyte revegetation. Environ Sci Pollut Res.
  • Liu, S., Li, J., Yang, Y., Wang, J., Ding, H., 2016. Influence of environmental factors on the phosphorus adsorption of lanthanum-modified bentonite in eutrophic water and sediment. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2016 Feb; 23(3):2487-94.
  • Noyma, N.P., de Magalhães, L., Furtado, L.L., Mucci, M., van Oosterhout, F., Huszar, V.L., Marinho, M.M., Lürling, M., 2016. Controlling cyanobacterial blooms through effective flocculation and sedimentation with combined use of flocculants and phosphorus adsorbing natural soil and modified clay. Water Res. 97, 26-38.
  • Spears, B.M., Mackay, E.B., Yasseri, S.,  Gunn, I.D.M., Waters, K.E., Andrews, C., Cole, S., de Ville, M., Kelly, A., Meis, S., Moore, A.L., Nürnberg, G.K., van Oosterhout, F., Pitt, J., Madgwick, G., Woods, H.J. & Lürling, M. 2016. A meta-analysis of water quality and aquatic macrophyte responses in 18 lakes treated with lanthanum modified bentonite (PHOSLOCK®). Water Research. 97.111-121.
  • Su Y., Zhang C., Jianxi Liu J., Weng Y., Li H., Zhang D., 2016. Assessing the impacts of phosphorus inactive clay on phosphorus release control and phytoplankton community structure in eutrophic lakes. Environmental Pollution 219, 620-630.
  • Waajen, G., van Oosterhout, F., Douglas, G. & Lürling, M. 2016. Management of eutrophication in Lake De Kuil (The Netherlands) using combined flocculant Lanthanum modified bentonite treatment. Water Research. 97.83-95.
  • Waajen, G., van Oosterhout, F., Douglas, G. & Lurling, M. 2016. Geo-engineering experiments in two urban ponds to control eutrophication. Water Research. 97. pg 69-82.
  • Wang C., Bai L., Jiang H.L., Xu H., 2016. Algal bloom sedimentation induces variable control of lake eutrophication by phosphorus inactivating agents. Science of the Total Environment 557–558 (2016) 479–488.
  • Wang, C., Jiang, H.L., Xu, H., Yin, H., 2016. Variation of physicochemical properties of drinking water treatment residuals and Phoslock(®) induced by fulvic acid adsorption: Implication for lake restoration. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2016 Jan; 23(1):351-65.
  • Yasseri, S., Epe, T.S., 2016. Analysis of the La:P ratio in lake sediments–vertical and spatial distribution assessed by a multiple-core survey. Water Res 97, 96-100.
  • Yin,H., Kong, M., Han, M. & Fan, C. 2016. Influence of sediment resuspension on the efficacy of geoengineering materials in the control of internal phosphorous loading from shallow eutrophic lakes. Environmental Pollution. 1-12.


  • Dithmer, L., Lipton, A.S., Reitzel, K., Warner, T.E., Lundberg, D. & Nielsen, U. 2015. Characterization of phosphate sequestration by a lanthanum modified bentonite clay: A solid-state NMR, EXAFS and PXRD study” Environmental Science and Technology. 49 (7), 4559–4566.
  • Lin, J., Qiu, P., Yan, X., Xiong, X., Jing, L. & Wu, C. 2015. Effectiveness and Mode of Action of Calcium Nitrate and Phoslock® in Phosphorus Control in Contaminated Sediment, a Microcosm Study. Water, Air and Soil Pollution. 226-330.
  • Seger, A., Dorantes-Aranda, J.J., Muller, M.N., Body, A., Peristy, A., Place, A.R., Park, T.G. & Hallegraeff, G. 2015. Mitigating Fish-Killing Prymnesium parvum Algal Blooms in Aquaculture Ponds with Clay: The Importance of pH and Clay Type. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering 3(2), 154-174.
  • Tekile, A., Kim,I & Kim, J. 2015. Mini-review on river eutrophication and bottom improvement techniques, with special emphasis on the Nakdong River. Journal of Environmental Sciences. 30, 113-121.
  • Wei X. & Shao-yong L., 2015. Effects of inactivation agents and temperature on phosphorus release from sediment in Dianchi Lake, China. Environ Earth Sci (2015) 74:3857–3865


  • Bishop, W.M., McNabb, T., Cormican, I., Willis, B.E., Hyde, S., 2014. Operational evaluation of phoslock phosphorus locking technology in Laguna Niguel Lake, California. Water, Air, Soil Pollut. 225 (7), 1-11.
  • Gunn, I.D.M., Meis, S., Maberly, S.C., Spears, B.M., 2014. Assessing the responses of aquatic macrophytes to the application of a lanthanum modified bentonite clay, at Loch Flemington, Scotland, UK. Hydrobiologia 737 (1), 309-320.
  • Kuroki V., Bosco G.E., Fadini P.S., Mozeto A.A., Cestari A.R., Carvalho W.A., 2014. Use of a La(III)-modified bentonite for effective phosphate removal from aqueous media. Journal of Hazardous Materials 274 (2014) 124–131.
  • Lürling, M., Van Oosterhout, F., Waajen, G., 2014. Humic substances interfere with phosphate removal by lanthanum modified clay in controlling eutrophication. Water Res. 54, 78-88.
  • Mackay, E.B., Maberly, S.C., Pan, G., Reitzel, K., Bruere, A., Corker, N., Douglas, G., Egemose, S., Hamilton, D., Hatton-Ellis, T., Huser, B., Li, W., Meis, S., Moss, B., Lürling, M., Phillips, G., Yasseri, S., Spears, B.M., 2014. Geoengineering in lakes: welcome attraction or fatal distraction? Inland Waters 4, 349e356.
  • Moss, M.T., Taffs, K.H., Longstaff, B.J., Ginn, B.K., 2014. Establishing ecological reference conditions and tracking post-application effectiveness of lanthanum saturated bentonite clay (Phoslock®) for reducing phosphorous in aquatic ecosystems: an applied paleolimnological approach. J. Environ. Manag. 141, 77-85.
  • Novak, P.A., Chambers, J.M., 2014. Investigation of nutrient thresholds to guide restoration and management of two impounded rivers in south-western Australia. Ecol. Eng. 68, 116-123.
  • Seger A., Body A., Hallegraeff G., 2014. Exploration of Phoslock® clay in mitigating Prymnesium parvum fish-killing algal blooms in aquaculture ponds. Conference Paper – accepted manuscript. Conference: 15th International Conference on Harmful AlgaeAt: Changwon, Korea.
  • Spears, B.M., Maberly, S.C., Pan, G, Mackay, E., Bruere. A., Corker. N., Douglas, G., Egemose, S., Hamilton, D., Hatton-Ellis, T., Huser, B., Li,W., Meis, S., Moss, B., Luerling, M., Phillips, G., Yasseri, S., Reitzel, K., 2014. Geoengineering in lakes: a crisis of confidence? Environ Sci Technol 48: 9977–9979.
  • Van Oosterhout, F., Goitom, E., Roessink, I., Lürling, M., 2014. Lanthanum from a modified clay used in eutrophication control is bioavailable to the Marbled crayfish (Procambarus fallax f. virginalis). Plos One 9 (7), e102410.
  • Zamparas, M., Zacharias, I., 2014. Restoration of eutrophic freshwater by managing internal nutrient loads. A review. Sci. Total Environ. 496, 551-562.


  • Crosa, G., Yasseri, S., Nowak, K.E., Canziani, A., Roella, V., Zaccara, S., 2013. Recovery of Lake Varese: reducing trophic status through internal P load capping. Fundam. Appl. Limnol. 183 (1), 49-61.
  • Lürling, M., van Oosterhout, F., 2013a. Controlling eutrophication by combined bloom precipitation and sediment phosphorus inactivation. Water Res. 47 (17), 6527-6537.
  • Lürling, M., Van Oosterhout, F., 2013b. Case study on the efficacy of a lanthanum enriched clay (Phoslock®) in controlling eutrophication in Lake Het Groene Eiland (The Netherlands). Hydrobiologia 710 (1), 253-263.
  • Márquez-Pacheco, H., Hansen, A.M., Falcón-Rojas, A., 2013. Phosphorous control in a eutrophied reservoir. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 20 (12), 8446-8456.
  • Meis, S., Spears, B.M., Maberly, S.C., O’Malley, M.B., Perkins, R.G., 2013. Assessing the mode of action of Phoslock® in the control of phosphorus release from the bed sediments in a shallow lake (Loch Flemington, UK). Water Res. 47 (13), 4460-4473.
  • Reitzel, K., Andersen, F.O., Egemose, S., Jensen, H.S., 2013. Phosphate adsorption by lanthanum modified bentonite clay in fresh and brackish water. Water Res. 47(8), 2787-2796.
  • Reitzel, K., Lotter, S., Dubke, M., Egemose, S., Jensen, H.S., Andersen, F.Ø., 2013. Effects of Phoslock® treatment and chironomids on the exchange of nutrients between sediment and water. Hydrobiologia 703 (1), 189-202.
  • Spears, B.M., Meis, S., Anderson, A., Kellou, M., 2013. Comparison of phosphorus (P) removal properties of materials proposed for the control of sediment P release in UK lakes. Sci. Total Environ. 442, 103-110.
  • Spears, B.M., Lürling, M., Yasseri, S., Castro-Castellon, A.T., Gibbs, M., Meis, S., McDonald, C., McIntosh, J., Sleep, D., Van Oosterhout, F., 2013. Lake responses following lanthanum-modified bentonite clay (Phoslock®) application: an analysis of water column lanthanum data from 16 case study lakes. Water Res. 47 (15), 5930-5942.
  • Spears, B.M., Dudley, B., Reitzel, K., Rydin, E., 2013. Geo-Engineering in Lakes-A Call for Consensus. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2013, 47, 3953-3954.
  • Van Oosterhout, F., Lürling, M., 2013. The effect of phosphorus binding clay (Phoslock®) in mitigating cyanobacterial nuisance: a laboratory study on the effects on water quality variables and plankton. Hydrobiologia 710 (1), 265-277.


  • Liu, B., Liu, X.G., Yang, J., Garman, D., Zhang, K., Zhang, H.G., 2012. Research and application of in-situ control technology for sediment rehabilitation in eutrophic water bodies. Water Sci. Technol. 65 (7), 1190-1199.
  • Lürling, M., Faasen, E.J., 2012. Controlling toxic cyanobacteria: effects of dredging and phosphorus-binding clay on cyanobacteria and microcystins. Water Res. 46 (5), 1447-1459.
  • Meis, S., 2012. Investigating Forced Recovery from Eutrophication in Shallow Lakes (Ph.D. thesis). Cardiff University, United Kingdom.
  • Meis, S., Spears, B.M., Maberly, S.C., Perkins, R.G., 2012. Sediment amendment with Phoslock® in Clatto reservoir (Dundee, UK): Investigating changes in sediment elemental composition and phosphorus fractionation. J. Environ. Manage. 93 (1), 185-193.
  • Van Oosterhout, F., Lürling, M., 2012. Effects of the novel ‘flock & lock’ lake restoration technique on Daphnia in Lake Rauwbraken (The Netherlands). J. Plankton Res. 33 (2), 255-263.
  • Zamparas, M., Gianni, A., Stathi, P., Deligiannakis, Y., Zacharias, I., 2012. Removal of phosphate from natural waters using innovative modified bentonites. Appl. Clay Sci. 62-63, 101-106.


  • Geurts, J.J.M., van de Wouw, P.A.G., Smolders, A.J.P., Roelofs, J.G.M., Lamers, L.P.M., 2011. Ecological restoration on former agricultural soils: feasibility of in situ phosphate fixation as an alternative to top soil removal. Ecol. Eng. 37 (11), 1620-1629.
  • Gibbs, M., Hickey, C., Özkundakci, D., 2011. Sustainability assessment and comparison of efficacy of four P-inactivation agents for managing internal phosphorus loads in lakes: sediment incubations. Hydrobiologia 658 (1), 253-275.


  • Egemose, S., Reitzel, K., Andersen, F.Ø., Flindt, M.R., 2010. Chemical lake restoration products: sediment stability and phosphorus dynamics. Environ. Sci. Technol. 44, 985-991.
  • Lürling, M., Tolman, Y., 2010. Effects of lanthanum and lanthanum-modified clay on growth, survival and reproduction of Daphnia magna. Water Res. 44 (1), 309-319.


  • Haghseresht, F., Wang, S.B., Do, D.D., 2009. A novel lanthanum modified bentonite, Phoslock®, for phosphate removal from wastewaters. Appl. Clay Sci. 46 (4), 369-375.
  • Hickey, C.W., Gibbs, M.M., 2009. Lake sediment phosphorus release management decision support and risk assessment framework. N. Z. J. Mar. Freshw. Res. 43 (3), 819-856.
  • Liu, Y., Tian, K., Winks, A., 2009. Water eutrophication prevention by Phoslock flocculation and sediment capping reaction. Proc. Int. Conf. Environ. Sci. Inf. Appl. Technol. 349-352.
  • Watson-Leung, T., 2009. Phoslock® Toxicity Testing with Three Sediment Dwelling Organisms (Hyalella azteca, Hexagenia spp. and Chironomus dilutus) and Two Water Column Dwelling Organisms (Rainbow Trout and Daphnia magna). Technical Memorandum report for Lake Simcoe Region Conservation Authority; Ontario Ministry of the Environment. Laboratory Services Branch Aquatic Toxicology, Canada.


  • Ross, G., Haghseresht, F., Cloete, T.E., 2008. The effect of pH and anoxia on the performance of Phoslock®, a phosphorus binding clay. Harmful Algae 7 (4), 545-550.
  • Vopel, K., Gibbs, M., Hickey, C.W., Quinn, J., 2008. Modification of sediment water solute exchange by sediment-capping materials: effects on O2 and pH. Mar. Freshw. Res. 59 (12), 1101-1110.


  • Landman, M., Brijs, J., Glover, C., Ling, N., 2007. Lake Okareka and Tikitapu fish health monitoring. Scion report. Scion, New Zealand.


  • Douglas, G.B., Robb, M.S., Coad, D.N., Ford, P.W., 2004. A review of solid phase adsorbents for the removal of phosphorus from natural and waste waters. In: Valsami-Jones, E. (Ed.), Phosphorus in Environmental Technology – Removal, Recovery, Applications. IWA Publishing, pp. 291-320 (Chapter 13).


  • Douglas, G.B., Adeney, J.A., Robb, M., 1999. A novel technique for reducing bioavailable phosphorus. In: Proceeding of the International Association Water Quality Conference on Diffuse Pollution, pp. 517-523.